Sugar Beet Artificial Seeds an Overview

Wessam M. Rslan

Abstract


Artificial seed propagation of crops broadens the horizon of plant biotechnology and farming. The technology offers techniques for micropropagulated seed analogs such as axillary leaves, embryogenic calli, somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, and protocorm-like organs. Micropropagules are embedded in gelling medium and carboxyl methyl cellulose active coatings. A variety of plant species, such as mulberry, sandalwood, cardamom, banana, sugar beet, maize, and relative, have recorded encapsulation of micro shoots and somatic embryos and subsequent recovery of full plantlets. This knowledge has shown that artificial seed manufacturing is possibly helpful for the propagation of economically significant species ' inferior hybrids on a big scale. Artificial seed development can only succeed with effective upstream manufacturing of micropropagules and downstream germination procedures for an elevated proportion of plant regeneration as one of the significant value-added plant tissue culture goods. Different micropropagules were regarded for the manufacturing of artificial seeds; however, mostly favored were somatic embryos and axillary stem buds. As micropropagules, somatic embryos were used to create artificial seeds in a wide range of fruit and plant organisms, which include Daucus carota, Picea abies, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Psidium guajava, and Vitis vinifera. The review illustrated the concept of synthetic seeds and encapsulation procedure of sugar beet


Keywords


Artificial seed; plant biotechnology; embryogenic; sugar beet; micropropagulated

Full Text:

View Full Text

References


Ara H, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal VS. Germination and plantlet regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Plant Cell Rep. Springer; 1999;19(2):166–70.

Murashige T. Plant cell and organ cultures as horticultural practices. Symposium on Tissue Culture for Horticultural Purposes 78. 1977. p. 17–30.

Naga BLRI, Mangamoori LN, Subramanyam S. Identification and characterization of EST-SSRs in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.). J Crop Sci Biotechnol. Springer; 2012;15(10):9–16.

Kitto SL, Janick J. Hardening treatments increase survival of synthetically-coated asexual embryos of carrot. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. Springer; 1985;110(2):283–6.

Redenbaugh K, Paasch BD, Nichol JW, Kossler ME, Viss PR, Walker KA. Somatic seeds: encapsulation of asexual plant embryos. Bio/technology. Nature Publishing Group; 1986;4(9):797.

Senaratna T. Artificial seeds. Biotechnol Adv. Elsevier; 1992;10(3):379–92.

Mariani P. Eggplant somatic embryogenesis combined with synthetic seed technology. Capsicum Newslett. 1992;289–94.

Refouvelet E, Le Nours S, Tallon C, Daguin F. A new method for in vitro propagation of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.): regrowth and storage conditions for axillary buds encapsulated in alginate beads, development of a pre-acclimatisation stage. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam). Elsevier; 1998;74(3):233–41.

Pattnaik S, Chand PK. Morphogenic response of the alginate-encapsulated axillary buds from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Springer; 2000;60(3):177–85.

Murashige, Toshio and FS. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant. 1962;15(3):473–97.

Saiprasad GVS. Artificial seeds and their applications. Resonance. Springer; 2001;6(5):39–47.

Wake H, Akasaka A, Umetsu H, Ozeki Y, Shimomura K, Matsunaga T. Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. Springer; 1992;36(5):684–8.

Ganapathi TR, Suprasanna P, Bapat VA, Rao PS. Propagation of banana through encapsulated shoot tips. Plant Cell Rep. Springer; 1992;11(11):571–5.

Tan TK, Loon WS, Khor E, Loh CS. Infection of Spathoglottis plicata (Orchidaceae) seeds by mycorrhizal fungus. Plant Cell Rep. Springer; 1998;18(1-2):14–9.

Antonietta GM, Micheli M, Pulcini L, Standardi A. Perspectives of the encapsulation technology in the nursery activity of Citrus. Caryologia. Taylor & Francis; 2007;60(1-2):192–5.

Redenbaugh K. Synseeds: applications of synthetic seeds to crop improvement. CRC Press Inc.; 1993.

Datta KB, Kanjilal B, Sarker DD. Artificial seed technology: Development of a protocol in Geodorum densiflorum (Lam) Schltr.--An endangered orchid. Curr Sci. JSTOR; 1999;1142–5.

Mandal J, Pattnaik S, Chand PK. Alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Ocimum americanum L.(hoary basil), O. Basilicum L.(sweet basil), O. Gratissimum L.(shrubby basil), and O. Sanctum. L.(sacred basil). Vitr Cell Dev Biol. Springer; 2000;36(4):287–92.

Anand Y, Bansal YK. Synthetic seeds: A novel approach of in vitro plantlet formation in vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees.). Plant Biotechnol. Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology; 2002;19(3):159–62.

Ikhlaq M, Hafiz IA, Micheli M, Ahmad T, Abbasi NA, Standardi A. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: effect of different storage conditions and intervals on their conversion ability. African J Biotechnol. Academic Journals (Kenya); 2010;9(35).

Asmah HN, Hasnida HN, Zaimah NAN, Noraliza A, Salmi NN. Synthetic seed technology for encapsulation and regrowth of in vitro-derived Acacia hyrid shoot and axillary buds. African J Biotechnol. Academic Journals (Kenya); 2011;10(40):7820–4.

Fujii JA, Slade D, Redenbaugh K. Maturation and greenhouse planting of alfalfa artificial seeds. Vitr Cell Dev Biol. Springer; 1989;25(12):1179–82.

Bapat VA, Rao PS. In vivo growth of encapsulated axillary buds of mulberry (Morus indica L.). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Springer; 1990;20(1):69–70.

Fujii, Slade D, Aguirre-Rascon J, Redenbaugh K. Field planting of alfalfa artificial seeds. Vitr. Springer; 1992;28(2):73–80.

Nieves N, Zambrano Y, Tapia R, Cid M, Pina D, Castillo R. Field performance of artificial seed-derived sugarcane plants. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Springer; 2003;75(3):279–82.

Ma XM, Wu CF, Wang GR. Application of artificial seeds in rapid multiplication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. African J Biotechnol. Academic Journals (Kenya); 2011;10(70):15744–8.

Rizkalla AA, Badr-Elden AM, Ottai ME-S, Nasr MI, Esmail MNM. Development of artificial seed technology and preservation in sugar beet. Sugar Tech. Springer; 2012;14(3):312–20.

Nower AA. In Vitro Propagation and Synthetic Seeds Production: An Efficient Methods for Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Sugar Tech. 2014;16(1):100–8.

Kitto SL, Janick J. Polyox as an artificial seed coat for asexual embryos. HortScience. 1982. p. 488.

Ara H, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal VS. Synthetic seed: prospects and limitations. Curr Sci. JSTOR; 2000;1438–44.

Nyende AB, Schittenhelm S, Mix-Wagner G, Greef JM. Yield and canopy development of field grown potato plants derived from synthetic seeds. Eur J Agron. 2005;22(2):175–84

Gangopadhyay G, Bandyopadhyay T, Poddar R, Gangopadhyay SB, Mukherjee KK. Encapsulation of pineapple micro shoots in alginate beads for temporary storage. Curr Sci. JSTOR; 2005;972–7.

Adawy SS, Mokhtar MM, Alsamman AM, Sakr MM. Development of annotated EST-SSR database in olive (Olea europaea). Int J Sci Res. 2015;4(9):1063–73.

Mokhtar MM, Adawy SS, El-Assal SE-DS, Hussein EHA. Genic and Intergenic SSR Database Generation, SNPs Determination and Pathway Annotations, in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). PLoS One. Public Library of Science; 2016;11(7):e0159268.

Bekheet SA. A synthetic seed method through encapsulation of in vitro proliferated bulblets of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Arab J Biotech. 2006;9:415–26.

Narula A, Kumar S, Srivastava PS. Genetic fidelity of in vitro regenerants, encapsulation of shoot tips and high diosgenin content in Dioscorea bulbifera L., a potential alternative source of diosgenin. Biotechnol Lett. Springer; 2007;29(4):623–9.

Srivastava V, Khan SA, Banerjee S. An evaluation of genetic fidelity of encapsulated microshoots of the medicinal plant: Cineraria maritima following six months of storage. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult. Springer; 2009;99(2):193–8.

Tabassum B, Nasir IA, Farooq AM, Rehman Z, Latif Z, Husnain T. Viability assessment of in vitro produced synthetic seeds of cucumber. African J Biotechnol. Academic Journals (Kenya); 2010;9(42):7026–32.

Mishra J, Singh M, Palni LMS, Nandi SK. Assessment of genetic fidelity of encapsulated microshoots of Picrorhiza kurrooa. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult. Springer; 2011;104(2):181–6.

Lata H, Moraes RM, Bertoni B, Pereira AMS. In vitro germplasm conservation of Podophyllum peltatum L. under slow growth conditions. Vitr Cell Dev Biol. Springer; 2010;46(1):22–7.

Lindsey K, Gallois P. Transformation of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J Exp Bot. Oxford University Press; 1990;41(5):529–36.

Hisano H, Kimoto Y, Hayakawa H, Takeichi J, Domae T, Hashimoto R, et al. High frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and plant regeneration via direct shoot formation from leaf explants in Beta vulgaris and Beta maritima. Plant Cell Rep. Springer; 2004;22(12):910–8.

Krishna H, Alizadeh M, Singh D, Singh U, Chauhan N, Eftekhari M, et al. Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement. 3 Biotech. Springer; 2016;6(1):54.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.36462/H.BioSci.20181

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Rslan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

...........................................................................................................................................................

Other "Highlights in" Journals

Highlights_in_BioScience

Highlights in Bioinformatics              Highlights in Chemistry                 Highlights in Science

Highlights_in_BioScience

Highlights in Microbiology              Highlights in Plant Science

Free counters!


........................................................................................................................................

International Library of Science "Highlights in" is an Open Access Scientific Publishers, aiming to science and knowledge support