Biochemical approach to assess groundwater pollution by heavy metals pollutants and organics (case Reghaia Lake, Algeria)

Boussaid Khadidja, Chebouti–Meziou Nadjiba


The article deals with the determination of the factors responsible for the degradation of the Reghaia nature reserve. The objective of this research was to evaluate the spatial variation of chemical pollutants including the accumulation of some heavy metals (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Silver, Nickel and Lead) in the water of Lake Reghaia, Algiers. The study was carried out on 64 water samples taken from Reghaia Lake. For physico-chemical parameters and for MTEs that have been assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the chemical level, high levels of nitrates have been recorded in water between 4mg / l, 30mg / l and concerning the phosphate, it has a high content (5.7 mg / l). Surface waters have high levels of suspended solids. BOD5 and COD are high, with COD/DBO5 ratios well above 3, dissolved oxygen values do not comply with WHO standards with P = 0.000001. Water degradation is caused by the presence of latrines, piles of garbage, farms, draining of sanitation facilities in nature and especially in watercourses. Heavy metal pollution is significant and has been reported for Plomp (Pb), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), which reached the high risk level (p <0.01) especially upstream of the Reghaia Lake. And that the MTE contents vary irregularly from one station to another and from one depth to another. The results reveal that the waters of the Réghaia Lake are of very poor quality and the degradation of the ecosystem is more and more increased, to this effect a treatment is recommended.


Biochemical Parameters, BOD5 , COD , ETM, Lake of Reghaia , Pollution

Full Text:

View Full Text


Hodomihou K R , Frédéric F , Dominique M , Kossi E A , Guillaume L A , Yacine N , Emmanuel D. Diagnosis of contamination of periurban agrosystems of Dakar by the trace metallic elements. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ, 2016; 20(3): 397-407.

Chowdary V M , Rao N, Sarma P B S. Decision Support Framework for Assessment of Non-Point-Source Pollution of Groundwater in Large Irrigation Projects. Agricultural Water Management, 2005; 75: 194-225.

Boateng TK, Opoku, F Akoto, O. Evaluation de la contamination par les métaux lourds de la qualité des eaux souterraines: une étude de cas du site d'enfouissement d'Oti, Kumasi. Science appliquée de l'eau, 2019 ;9 (2) : p.33.

Harper ER., St Leger J A , Westberg J A , Mazzaro L, Schmitt T, Reidarson T H, Tucker M, Cross D H, & Puschner B. Tissue Heavy Metal Concentrations of Stranded California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California. Environmental Pollution, 2007 ;147: 677-682.

Kojadinovic J, Potier M, Le Corre M, Cosson R P, & Bustamante P. Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Pelagic Fish from the Western Indian Ocean. Environmental Pollution, 2007;146: 548-566.

Storelli M M, Barone G, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano G O. Total and Subcellular Distribution of Trace Elements (Cd, Cu and Zn) in the Liver and Kidney of Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Mediterranean Sea. Chemosphere,2008; 70: 908-913.

Kannan K, Agusa T, Perrotta E, Thomas N J, Tanabe S. Comparison of Trace Element Concentrations in Livers of Diseased, Emaciated and Non-Diseased Southern Sea Otters from the California Coast. Chemosphere, 2006;65: 2160-2167.

Jeffree RA, Warnau M, Oberhansli F, Teyssie J. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides from Seawater by Encased Embryos of the Spotted Dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2006;52: 1278-1286.

Zauke G P, Clason B, Savinov V M, Savinova T. Heavy Metals of Inshore Benthic Invertebrates from the Barents Sea. The Science of the Total Environment, 2003; 306: 99-110.

Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention.The Handbook of the Ramsar: Guide to the Convention on wetlands (Ramsar, Iran,1971), 2006; 6th edition, Gland, Swiss :7pp.

Ahriz S, Nedjraoui D, Sadki N. Impact of industrial pollution on a lake ecosystem: determination of bioaccumulators .journal of Sciences and Technologie ,2011; 34: 9-16.

El Asslouj J, Kholtel S , El Amrani-Paaza N, Hilali A. Étude de la qualité physicochimique des eaux souterraines de la communauté Mzamza, au voisinage des eaux usées.Afrique Science, 2007 ;03 (1) : Pp 109-122.

Smahi, D, El Hammoumi O, Fekri A. Évaluation de l'impact de la décharge sur la qualité des eaux souterraines: une étude de cas du site Mediouna, Casablanca, Maroc. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2013;5 (04) : p. 440.

Ehteshami E, Armin ,S , Salman ,T.Simulation de Nitrate contamination des eaux souterraines causée par l'industrie du bétail (Étude de cas: Rey). Revues en Sciences de la Terre et de l' environnement, 2013; Vol.4 No 7A : 91-97 .

Abdel-Fattah S, Krantzberg G. Commentary: Climate change adaptive management in the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2014 Sep 1;40(3):578-80.

Neama MA, Attia M, Negm A , Nasr M . Aperçu des ressources en eau, de la qualité et de la gestion en Algérie; 2020 :14pp.

Rodier J. Water analysis; natural waters, wastewater, Dunod Bordas, Paris, 7th Edition, 1996; 1365 -1366.

Hade A . Our lakes - understanding to better protect them, Montréal. 2005; 360 pp.

Yong-Hui Y, Feng Z , Huai C G , Hu S ,Hui L, Xu D, Cheng J H . Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods. Environ Monit Assess. 2010; 170:407–416

Badillo-Camacho J, Reynaga-Delgado E, Barcelo-Quintal I, del Valle PF, López-Chuken UJ, Orozco-Guareño E, AlvarezBobadilla JI, Gomez-Salazar S. Water quality assessment of a tropical Mexican lake using multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015 Mar 5;6(03):215

Gaugous D. Pollution of aquatic environments. Memory aid, 2nd edition. Edition Masson.1995;136.

Michel L .Towards ecohydrological approach of biomonitoring in running waters. Journal of Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology,2011;11:9-22.

Afri-Mehennaoui F Z. Contribution to the physico-chemical and biological study of Oued Kebir Rhumel and its main tributaries. The thesis of Magister in ecology. University Mentouri Constantine, 1998 ; 238pp.

WHO, World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 1, Recommendations .3rd Edition. World Health Organization,Geneva 2006.

Zahran MA, El-Amier YA, Elnaggar AA, Mohamed HA, El-Alfy MA. Assessment and distribution of heavy metals pollutants in Manzala Lake, Egypt. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2015;3(06):107.

Nisbet M, Verneaux J. Chemical components of common waters: discussion and proposal of classes as the basis for interpretation of analyses. Ann. of Limnology, 1970;6: 161-190.

Bentellis A, Azzoug R , Rachid O, Gharzoul R , Soltani A. Evaluation of the level of metallic contamination of soils in the barges of the wadi Rhumel and study of its impact on the riparian vegetation (upstream of the confluence oaued Rhumel-Boumerzoug) constantine. journal Sciences & Technologie , 2003;20: 25-38.

El Morhit M, FEkhaoui M, ÉliE P, Girard P, Yahyaoui A, El Abidi A. Jbilou M. Heavy metals in sediment, water and the European glass eel, Anguilla anguilla (Osteichthyes: Anguillidae) from Loukkos river estuary (Morocco, eastern Atlantic). Cybium, 2009;33(3): pp.219-228.

Arnac M. Variation in the concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cu in the waters of the esuaire MARITIME DU ST-LAURENT during the summer of 1972. Marine Chemistry,1976; 4: 175-187.

Driss S, Ahmed F, El Hammoumi O..Environmental Impact of Casablanca Landfill on Groundwater Quality, Morocco. International Journal of Geosciences, 2013; 4: 202-211.

ALGERIA P O I W I. protection des eaux de surfaces continentales en algerie: quelle strategie faut-il adopter pour les dix prochaines annees?. larhyss journal, 2017;31: pp.7-17.

Person A , Petit_ Covieux F ,Le Moulec Y, Festy B. The contribution of main sources of metals and metalloids particulate pollution in the parisian agglomeration. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, 1993; 75-88.

Rahmoune C, Seridi R, Paul R, Dreze P. Influence of Zn concentration in solution applied to leaves and roots on the absorption and translocation of Cd by leaves. Dirasat. Agricultural Sciences. 2000;27(1):72-7.

Miquel M. The effects of heavy metals on the environment and health.S.l. Parliamentary Review of Scientific and Technological Options. 2001; Senate Report No 261 : 124-128.

Dan S F, Umoh U U, Osabor V N.Seasonal Variation of Enrichment and Contamination of Heavy Metals in the Surface Water of Qua Iboe River Estuary and Adjoining Creeks South-South Nigeria. Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science, 2014;5: 45-54.

Adeleke A, Kafeelah Y, Olumuyiwa O, Mutiu S. Classification and Health Risk Assessment for Borehole Water Contaminated by Metals in Selected Households in Southwest Nigeria .Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2016; 8:459-471.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Boussaid and Chebouti–Meziou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Other "Highlights in" Journals


Highlights in Bioinformatics              Highlights in Chemistry                 Highlights in Science


Highlights in Microbiology              Highlights in Plant Science

Free counters!


International Library of Science "Highlights in" is an Open Access Scientific Publishers, aiming to science and knowledge support